Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Notable Inventions and Discoveries


Notable Inventions and Discoveries
Date
Invention Or Discovery
Inventor Or Discoverer
Nationality

1250
Magnifying glass
Roger Bacon
English
1450
Printing press
Johann Gutenberg
German
1504
Pocket watch
Peter Henlein
German
1590
Compound microscope
Zacharias Janssen
Dutch
1593
Water thermometer
Galileo
Italian
1608
Telescope
Hans Lippershey
Dutch
1625
Blood transfusion
Jean-Baptiste Denys
French
1629
Steam turbine
Giovanni Branca
Italian
1642
Adding machine
Blaise Pascal
French
1643
Barometer
Evangelista Torricelli
Italian
1650
Air pump
Otto von Guericke
German
1656
Pendulum clock
Christiaan Huygens
Dutch
1661
Methanol
Robert Boyle
Irish
1668
Reflecting telescope
Isaac Newton
English
1671
Calculating machine
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
German
1698
Steam pump
Thomas Savery
English
1701
Seed drill
Jethro Tull
English
1710
Piano
Bartolomeo Cristofori
Italian
1712
Steam engine
Thomas Newcomen
British
1714
Mercury thermometer
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
German
1717
Diving bell
Edmund Halley
English
1725
Stereotyping
William Ged
Scottish
1745
Leyden jar (condenser)
E.G. von Kleist
German
1752
Lightning rod
Benjamin Franklin
American
1758
Achromatic lens
John Dollond
British
1759
Marine chronometer
John Harrison
British
1764
Spinning jenny
James Hargreaves
British
1769
Spinning frame
R. Arkwright
English
1769
Steam engine (with separate condenser)
James Watt
British
1769
Automobile
Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot
French
1775
Submarine
David Bushnell
American
1780
Steel pen
Samuel Harrison
English
1780
Bifocal lens
Benjamin Franklin
American
1783
Balloon
Joseph Michel Montgolfier and
Jacques Étienne Montgolfier
French
1784
Threshing machine
Andrew Meikle
British
1785
Power loom
Edmund Cartwright
British
1786
Steamboat
John Fitch
American
1788
Flyball governor
James Watt
British
1791
Gas turbine
John Barber
British
1792
Illuminating gas
William Murdock
Scottish
1793
Cotton gin
Eli Whitney
American
1795
Hydraulic press
Joseph Bramah
English
1796
Lithography
Aloys Senefelder
German
1796
Smallpox vaccination
Edward Jenner
British
1799
Fourdrinier machine (papermaking)
Louis Robert
French
1800
Jacquard loom
Joseph Marie Jacquard
French
1800
Electric battery
Count Alessandro Volta
Italian
1801
Pattern loom
Joseph Marie Jacquard
French
1804
Screw propeller
John Stevens
American
1804
Solid-fuel rocket
William Congreve
British
1804
Steam locomotive
Richard Trevithick
British
1805
Electroplating
Luigi Gasparo Brugnatelli
Italian
1810
Food preservation (by sterilization and exclusion of air)
François Appert
French
1810
Steam-powered printing press
Frederick Koenig
German
1814
Railroad locomotive
George Stephenson
British
1815
Safety lamp
Sir Humphry Davy
British
1816
Bicycle (no pedals)
Karl D. Sauerbronn
German
1819
Stethoscope
René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec
French
1820
Hygrometer
J.F. Daniell
English
1820
Galvanometer
Johann Salomo Cristoph Schweigger
German
1821
Electric motor
Michael Faraday
British
1823
Silicon
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Swedish
1823
Electromagnet
William Sturgeon
British
1824
Portland cement
Joseph Aspdin
British
1827
Friction match
John Walker
British
1829
Typewriter1
W.A. Burt
American
1829
Braille printing
Louis Braille
French
1830
Platform scales
Thaddeus Fairbanks
American
1830
Sewing machine
Barthélemy Thimonnier
French
1831
Phosphorus match
Charles Sauria
French
1831
Reaper
Cyrus Hall McCormick
American
1831
Dynamo
Michael Faraday
British
1834
Electric streetcar
Thomas Davenport
American
1835
Pistol (revolver)
Samuel Colt
American
1837
Telegraph
Samuel Finley Breese Morse
Sir Charles Wheatstone
American
British
1838
Morse code
Samuel Finley Breese Morse
American
1839
Photography
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and
Joseph Nicéphore Niepce William Henry Fox Talbot
French
British
1839
Vulcanized rubber
Charles Goodyear
American
1839
Steam hammer
James Nasmyth
Scottish
1839
Bicycle (with pedals)
Kirkpatrick MacMillan
British
1845
Pneumatic tire
Robert William Thompson
American
1846
Rotary printing press
Richard March Hoe
American
1846
Nitroglycerin
Ascanio Sobrero
Italian
1846
Guncotton
Christian Friedrich Schönbein
German
1846
Ether
Crawford Williamson Long
American
1849
Reinforced concrete
F.J. Monier
French
1849
Safety pin
Walter Hunt
American
1849
Water turbine
James Bicheno Francis
American
1850
Mercerized cotton
John Mercer
British
1851
Breech-loading rifle
Edward Maynard
American
1851
Opthalmoscope
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz
German
1852
Nonrigid airship
Henri Giffard
French
1852
Elevator (with brake)
Elisha Graves Otis
American
1852
Gyroscope
Jean Bernard Léon Foucault
French
1855
Hypodermic syringe
Alexander Wood
Scottish
1855
Safety matches
J.E. Lundstrom
Swedish
1856
Bessemer converter (steel)
Sir Henry Bessemer
British
1858
Harvester
Charles and William Marsh
American
1859
Spectroscope
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and
Robert Wilhelm Bunsen
German
1860
Gas engine
Jean-Joseph-Étienne Lenoir
French
1861
Web-fed newspaper printing press
Richard March Hoe
American
1861
Electric furnace
Wilhelm Siemens
British
1861
Machine gun
Richard Jordan Gatling
American
1861
Kinematoscope
Coleman Sellers
American
1865
Antiseptic surgery
Joseph Lister
English
1866
Paper (from wood pulp, sulfite process)
Benjamin Chew Tilghman
American
1866
Dynamite
Alfred Bernhard Nobel
Swedish
1868
Dry cell
Georges Leclanché
French
1868
Typewriter
Carlos Glidden and
Christopher Latham Sholes
American
1868
Air brake
George Westinghouse
American
1870
Celluloid
John Wesley Hyatt and Isaiah Hyatt
American
1871
Continuous current dynamo
Zénobe-Théophile Gramme
Belgian
1874
Quadruplex telegraph
Thomas Alva Edison
American
1876
Telephone2
Alexander Graham Bell
Antonio Meucci
American
Italian
1877
Internal-combustion engine (four-cycle)
Nikolaus August Otto
German
1877
Talking machine (phonograph)
Thomas Alva Edison
American
1877
Microphone
Emile Berliner
American
1877
Electric welding
Elihu Thomson
American
1877
Refrigerator car
G.F. Swift
American
1878
Cream separator
Carl Gustav de Laval
Swedish
1878
Cathode ray tube
Sir William Crookes
British
1879
Cash register
James J. Ritty
American
1879
Incandescent filament lamp
Thomas Alva Edison
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
American
British
1879
Automobile engine (two-cycle)
Karl Benz
German
1879
Arc lamp
Charles Francis Bush
American
1880
Linotype
Ottmar Mergenthaler
American
1884
Steam turbine
C.A. Parsons
English
1884
Rayon (nitrocellulose)
Comte Hilaire Bernigaud de Chardonnet
French
1884
Multiple-wheel steam turbine
Sir Charles Algernon Parsons
British
1884
Nipkow disk (mechanical television scanning device)
Paul Gottlieb Nipkow
German
1884
Fountain pen
Lewis Edson Waterman
American
1885
Graphophone (dictating machine)
Chichester A. Bell and
Charles Sumner Tainter
American
1885
AC transformer
William Stanley
American
1887
Air-inflated rubber tire
J.B. Dunlop
Scottish
1887
Gramophone (disk records)
Emile Berliner
American
1887
Gas mantle
Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach
Austrian
1887
Mimeograph
Albert Blake Dick
American
1887
Monotype
Tolbert Lanston
American
1888
Adding machine (recording)
William Seward Burroughs
American
1888
Kodak camera
George Eastman
American
1889
Steam turbine
C.G. de Laval
Swedish
1890
Rayon (cuprammonium)
Louis Henri Despeissis
French
1891
Glider
Otto Lilienthal
German
1891
Motion picture camera (kinetograph)
Thomas Alva Edison
William K. L. Dickson
American
British
1891
Motion picture viewer (kinetoscope)
Thomas Alva Edison
William K. L. Dickson
American
British
1891
Synthetic rubber
Sir William Augustus Tilden
British
1892
AC motor
Nikola Tesla
American
1892
Three-color camera
Frederick Eugene Ives
American
1892
Rayon (viscose)
Charles Frederick Cross
British
1892
Vacuum bottle (Dewar flask)
Sir James Dewar
British
1893
Photoelectric cell
Julius Elster Hans F. Geitel
German
1893
Diesel engine
Rudolf Diesel
German
1893
Gasoline automobile
Charles Edgar Duryea and
J. Frank Duryea
American
1894
Motion picture projection
Louis Jean Lumière and Auguste Marie Lumière
Charles Francis Jenkins
French

American
1895
X-ray
Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen
German
1895
Rayon (acetate)
Charles Frederick Cross
British
1895
Wireless telegraph
Marchese Guglielmo Marconi
Italian
1896
Experimental airplane
Samuel Pierpont Langley
American
1898
Sensitized photographic paper
Leo Hendrik Baekeland
American
1900
Rigid dirigible airship
Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin
German
1902
Radiotelephone
Valdemar Poulsen
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden
Danish
American
1903
Airplane
Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright
American
1903
Windshield wipers
Mary Anderson
American
1903
Electrocardiograph
Willem Einthoven
Dutch
1905
Diode rectifier tube (radio)
Sir John Ambrose Fleming
British
1906
Gyrocompass
Hermann Anschütz-Kämpfe
German
1907
Bakelite
Leo Hendrik Baekeland
American
1907
Triode amplifier tube (radio)
Lee De Forest
American
1908
Cellophane
Jacques Edwin Brandenberger
Swiss
1908
Two-color motion picture camera
C. Albert Smith
British
1909
Salvarsan
Paul Ehrlich
German
1910
Hydrogenation of coal
Friedrich Bergius
German
1910
Gyroscopic compass and stabilizer
Elmer Ambrose Sperry
American
1911
Air conditioning
W.H. Carrier
American
1911
Vitamins
Casimir Funk
Polish
1911
Cellophane
Jacques Edwin Brandenberger
Swiss
1911
Neon lamp
Georges Claude
French
1912
Mercury-vapor lamp
Peter Cooper Hewitt
American
1913
Ramjet engine
René Lorin
French
1913
Multigrid electron tube
Irving Langmuir
American
1913
Cracked gasoline
William Meriam Burton
American
1913
Heterodyne radio receiver
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden
American
1915
Automobile self-starter
Charles Franklin Kettering
American
1916
Browning gun (automatic rifle)
John Moses Browning
American
1916
Gas-filled incandescent lamp
Irving Langmuir
American
1916
X-ray tube
William David Coolidge
American
1919
Mass spectrograph
Sir Francis William Aston
Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
British
American
1922-26
Sound motion pictures
T.W. Case
American
1922
Insulin
Sir Frederick Grant Banting
Canadian
1923
Autogiro
Juan de la Cierva
Spanish
1923
Television iconoscope
Vladimir Kosma Zworykin
American
1924
Quick-frozen food
Clarence Birdseye
American
1925
Television image dissector tube
Philo Taylor Farnsworth
American
1926
Aerosol can
Erik Rotheim
Norwegian
1926
Liquid-fuel rocket
Robert Hutchings Goddard
American
1928
Penicillin
Sir Alexander Fleming
British
1930
Bathysphere
(Charles) William Beebe
American
1930
Freon (low-boiling fluorine compounds)
Thomas Midgley and coworkers
American
1930
Modern gas-turbine engine
Sir Frank Whittle
British
1930
Neoprene (synthetic rubber)
Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland and Wallace Hume Carothers
American
1931
Cyclotron
Ernest Orlando Lawrence
American
1931
Differential analyzer (analogue computer)
Vannevar Bush
American
1932
Phase contrast microscope
Frits Zernike
Dutch
1932
Van de Graaff generator
Robert Jemison Van de Graaff
American
1933
Frequency modulation (FM)
Edwin Howard Armstrong
American
1935
Buna (synthetic rubber)
German scientists
German
1935
Radiolocator (radar)
Sir Robert Watson-Watt
British
1935
Cortisone
Edward Calvin Kendall
Tadeus Reichstein
American
Swiss
1935
Electron microscope
German scientists
German
1935
Sulfanllamide
Gerhard Domagk
German
1935
Nylon
Wallace Hume Carothers
American
1936
Twin-rotor helicopter3
Heinrich Focke
German
1937
Snowmobile
Armand Bombardier
Canadian
1938
Ballpoint pen
Georg and Ladislao Biro
Hungarian
1939
DDT
Paul Müller
Swiss
1939
Helicopter4
Igor Sikorsky
American
1940
Betatron
Donald William Kerst
American
1941
Turbojet aircraft engine
Sir Frank Whittle
British
1942
Guided missile
Wernher von Braun
German
1942
Nuclear reactor
Enrico Fermi
American
1942
Xerography
Chester Carlson
American
1944
V-2 (rocket-propelled bomb)
German scientists
German
1945
Atomic bomb
U.S. government scientists
American
1945
Streptomycin
Selman A. Waksman
American
1946
Electronic digital computer
John Presper Eckert, Jr., and
John W. Mauchly
American
1947
Holography
Dennis Gabor
English
1947
Chlormycetin
Mildred Rebstock
American
1947
Polaroid Land camera
Edwin Herbert Land
American
1947
Bathyscaphe
Auguste Piccard
Swiss
1947
Microwave oven
Percy L. Spencer
American
1948
Scintillation counter
Hartmut Kallmann
German
1948
Aureomycin
Benjamin Minge Duggar and
Chandra Bose Subba Row
American
1948
Transistor
John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Shockley
American
1949
Ramjet airplane
René Leduc
French
1950
Color television
Peter Carl Goldmark
American
1952
Hydrogen bomb
U.S. government scientists
American
1952
Bubble chamber (nuclear particle detector)
Donald Arthur Glaser
American
1953
Maser
Charles Townes
American
1954
Solar battery
Bell Telephone Laboratory scientists
American
1954
Polio vaccine
Jonas Salk
American
1955
Synthetic diamonds
General Electric scientists
American
1955
Carbon dating
W.F. Libby
American
1955
Optical fibers
Narinder S. Kapany
Indian
1956
Hovercraft
Christopher Cockerell
English
1956
First prototype rotary engine
Felix Wankel
German
1956
Videotape
Charles Ginsberg
Ray Dolby
American
1957
Sodium-cooled atomic reactor
U.S. government scientists
American
1957
Artificial earth satellite
USSR government scientists
Soviet
1958
Communications satellite
U.S. government scientists
American
1959
Integrated circuit
Jack Kilby
Robert Noyce
American
1960
Laser
Charles Hard Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow, and Gordon Gould
American
1960
Chlorophyll synthesized
Robert Burns Woodward
American
1960
Birth-control pill
Gregory Pincus, John Rock, and
Min-chueh Chang
American
1962
Light-emitting diode (LED)
Nick Holonyak, Jr.
American
1964
Liquid-crystal display
George Heilmeier
American
1965
Kevlar technology
Stephanie Kwolek
American
1966
Artificial heart (left ventricle)
Michael Ellis DeBakey
American
1966
Tunable dye laser
Mary Spaeth
American
1967
Human heart transplant
Christiaan Neethling Barnard
South Africa
1970
First complete synthesis of a gene
Har Gobind Khorana
American
1971
Microprocessor
Ted Hoff
American
1971
Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
Raymond Damadian
American
1972
Electronic pocket calculator
J.S. Kilby and J.D. Merryman
American
1972
First magnetohydrodynamic power generator
USSR government scientists
Soviet
1973
Skylab orbiting space laboratory
U.S. government scientists
American
1974
Recombinant DNA (genetic engineering)
U.S. scientists
American
1975
CAT (computerized axial tomography) scanner
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
British
1975
Fiberoptics
Bell Laboratories
American
1976
Supercomputer
J.H. Van Tassel and Seymour Cray
American
1978
Synthesis of human insulin genes
Roberto Crea, Tadaaki Hirose, Adam Kraszewski, and Keiichi Itakura
American
1978
Mammal to mammal gene transplants
Paul Berg, Richard Mulligan, and Bruce Howard
American
1979
Compact disc
Joop Sinjou
Toshi Tada Doi
Dutch
Japanese
1979
Genetic flaw repaired in mouse cells by recombinant DNA and micromanipulation techniques
W. French Anderson and coworkers
American
1981
Space transportation system (space shuttle)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration engineers
American
1982
Artificial heart
Robert K. Jarvik
American
1983
Scanning tunneling microscope
Gerd Binnig
Heinrich Rohrer
German
Swiss
1986
High-temperature superconductors
J. Georg Bednorz
Karl A. Müller
German
Swiss
1992
Magnetic boat
Yoshiro Saji
Japanese
Notes

1) An impractical prototype that was never widely used.

2) Bell received a patent for the telephone in 1876, but Meucci developed an earlier model around 1860.

3) Both rotors operated on a horizontal plane.

4) One rotor operated on a horizontal plane to provide lift, while another rotor operated on a vertical plane to counter the torque generated by the first rotor.

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